Arthropods are a group of invertebrate animals, with paired, jointed appendages and belonging to the phylum Arthropoda. Members of this distinctive group include insects, crustaceans, myriapods, arachnids and trilobites (fossils). They represent by themselves nearly three-fourths of all living and fossils organisms, and yet many other species remain to be described. These invertebrates organisms have of great importance to humans for thousands of years by providing valuable products such as honey, silk, and many other products as well as influencing greatly human civilization.
Despite their good service to human, arthropods have also been described as a source of nuisance, mainly because of their role in vectoring pathogens to human, livestock, and plants. Pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans and nematodes are actively or passively transmitted to human, livestock, and plant, leading to a significant human death and economic losses. For instance, the World health organization in 2010 have assessed that nearly three million people die of malaria each year mainly in the third world. Sometimes the disease may not kill the individual but alter the person’s ability to function properly in society.
All these facts together, arthropod-borne diseases appear to be poverty causing and poverty maintaining. Arthropod-borne diseases have been bothering human since the prehistoric time with many reports such as plague epidemic (Goddard, 2000). For many years entomologists have devoted their life in uncovering and describing the mechanisms and the role of Arthropods in the transmission and spread of infectious diseases. This paper aims at giving an overview of these implications of Arthropods in vectoring different diseases to humans, livestock, and plants.
Arthropods, despite being beneficial, cause serious problem to human, animals and plant because of their main role of diseases vector. The number of pathogens they can transmit is very high , the most known are protozoans, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes. However, in nature, many other non-described diseases may be transmitted by arthropods. Since arthropod-borne diseases are very complex given the interactions involved, the very obvious and straightforward way to deal with disease is through vector control. With the implementation of Integrated Pest management (IPM) and Integrated Vector Management (IVM), many efforts are being made to decrease the impact of arthropod-borne diseases.