Mosquitoe are by far the most import arthropods vectors of human and livestock diseases. One striking is that mosquitoes do not cause disease by themselves. They only carry and allow the disease causing pathogen to develop inside their organism. There are three of types of disease-causing agents transmitted by mosquitoes including viruses, protozoans and filarial nematodes. Although mosquitoes are not the only arthropods that vector viral diseases to humans and animals, they are by far the most important both in terms of the number and mortality of these diseases.
Viruses transmitted by arthropods are conventionally known as arboviruses. Major viral disease vectored by mosquitoes include dengue, yellow fever, zika fever, west Nile fever. Most of these diseases occur in tropical countries of the world where mosquito are well adapted to the environment and have suitable breeding environment. The socioeconomic and the life styles of people living in those counties contribute significantly to creation of breeding environment for those deadly arthropods. Other less known arboviral diseases include Rift valley fever, myxomatosis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis western equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, St. Louis encephalitis, LaCrosse encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, chikungunya fever, O’nyong nyong fever and Ross River fever. Mosquito are the focus of several pest management strategies that aim at eliminating and/or reducing mosquito populations.