Mosquitoes are small flies that cause of nuisance and diseases to humans and livestock. Since ancient times they have been associated with humans to whom they cause nuisance through biting and deadly diseases such as malaria. Aristotle described mosquitoes as “impies” in his writing “Historia Animalium” around 300 BC. Mosquitoes were actually, the first arthropods known as host of vertebrate parasites in 1878 (reference), and currently they are undoubtedly the most important group of arthropod that affect human life.
Mosquitoes are really small trouble makers. They affect not only humans but also domesticated and wild animals. As human being started to organize into communities (rural and urban) mosquitoes have followed them because of substantial benefits they get, the blood meal. Human blood as well as that of other vertebrates contains nutritive substances that are important for eggs development for mosquito females.
While acquiring blood from their host, mosquitoes transmit along several parasites, which cause deadly diseases. Some mosquito-borne diseases may not be fatal to humans but cause debilitation that prevent people from functioning properly in the society.
Mosquito-borne disease are mostly prevalent in developing countries where breeding conditions favor their rapid reproduction. Some species of mosquito also persist in temperate countries that have favorable breeding conditions. The most prevalent mosquito-borne diseases include malaria, dengue, yellow fever, filariasis, encephalitis and more recently zika fever.
Mosquito are believed to have appeared some 30 millions years ago. Both mosquito males and females feed on nectar and other source of sugar but females of certain mosquito species feed on vertebrates blood. The nutrients obtained from vertebrates blood are essential for the development and maturation of their eggs. However there are certain species of mosquitoes that do not require blood to develop their eggs.
All mosquitoes that feed on blood have piercing and sucking mouthparts that allow them to puncture vertebrate skins, reach for blood vessels and acquire blood. We will take in detail about this process in the rest this article. Mosquitoes are well known for the transmission of malaria, west Nile disease and many other vector-borne disease. The latest mosquito-borne disease that made the headline is zika virus which cause severe birth defect in human.
Mosquito Prevention and Control Strategies
The need to control mosquito population build up is not only because they spread disease among human but also because their biting are annoying. In the United States alone, millions of dollars are spent every year in mosquito control programs. Although mosquito control has been part of overall pest management programs, it is now part integrated vector management.
Strategies include destruction of mosquito breeding sites, spreading of insecticides and public awareness programs. In most case mosquito control rely on the use of insecticides especially if the population has established. The best way to avoid mosquito bites is through personal protection. This could include protective clothing and treated bed nets.Other people use mosquito repellent to deter mosquitoes.
There are several mosquito repellents available today on the market, especially if you look on Amazon. Most most mosquito repellent use a certain percentage of the chemical called DEET. This chemical is a potent mosquito repellent. The only limit factor of a mosquito repellent is the amount of DEET present on it and the amount of time before its repellent effect faded out.
Repel 100 is a mosquito repellent that contains 100% of DEET, and it is believed to the most effective and the most effective DEET-based mosquito repellent . Furthermore it repellent effect last longer than most mosquito repellent. Mosquito abatement may also be conducted at a community level.
Mosquito traps can also be used to catch mosquito and ultimately kill them. These types of traps are called mosquito magnets. There are different types of mosquito magnets but their principle is all the same.